Linus Torvalds created the Linux operating system (OS) in 1991 under license from the Free Software Foundation. Since then, thousands of computer programmers have contributed to its development. Because of this extensive programming, Linux is a stable and reliable OS capable of running multiprocessor computers.

Using the Command Line#

Linux command line is a text-based interface that allows users to interact with the operating system. It provides a way to issue commands to the system, which can be used to perform various tasks. The command line can be accessed by using a terminal emulator, which can be found in most Linux distributions.

User Accounts#

There are a variety of user accounts that can be created on a Linux system. Each user account is designed to allow a specific level of access to the system. The root user is the most powerful user on the system and has full control over all aspects of the system. The other user accounts are designed to allow limited access to the system.

File System#

The Linux file system is a hierarchical file system that allows for easy organization of files and directories. It is based on a UNIX file system, which is a common file system used by many operating systems. The Linux file system is very flexible and can be used for a variety of purposes.


There are many different types of software packages available for Linux systems. Some of the most common package types are .deb packages, .rpm packages, and source packages. .deb packages are typically used by Debian-based systems, .rpm packages are used by Red Hat-based systems, and source packages can be used by any type of Linux system. When you download a software package, you will typically download a .deb or .rpm file. These files are then installed on your system using a package manager. A package manager is a program that handles the installation and removal of software packages. The two most common package managers are apt and yum. Installing a software package using a package manager is typically a simple process.


Linux scripting is a great way to automate tasks and make them more efficient. By writing scripts, you can automate processes and make them more reliable. In addition, scripts can be used to create new commands or modify existing ones. Finally, scripts can be used to customize your environment and make it more user-friendly.

OS Internals#

The Linux OS Internals are the inner workings of the Linux operating system. This includes the kernel, which is the core of the OS, as well as the various user-space components. The OS internals are responsible for managing the system’s resources, such as memory, processors, and I/O devices. They also provide the interface between the user and the kernel, allowing the user to interact with the system.